reader Reviews Recent Comments from Masters and Masters"Do it yourself" Article How to grow moss on a site - 2 waysMoss is very fond of moisture, so settle it where there is shading, in the reservoir, under the canopy of trees and shrubs. XNUMH Mostly, the weather is wet. If you do not have time to plant the moss in the spring, it can be done in the fall. Usually it is well received and quickly pleases with its fresh look. When choosing moss, it is necessary to focus on a healthy, saturated color and thickness of the cover. It is necessary to take plants with curtains, undermining such "pads" from all sides and carefully separating them from the base. Different species of mosses will look beautiful in color and structure. The assembled "plates" must be folded into a basket, on the bottom of which a damp cloth has been previously placed. At the end of the collection, the basket must be closed with dense matter so that the rays of the sun do not fall on the mosses. After you bring the moss from the forest, spread it on the prepared area and press it well, and then pour it abundantly from the watering can.Oleg V. Article How to grow moss on a site - 2 waysI want to create a comfortable environment for my conifers in the garden. Tell us how to settle the moss here from the forest.G. TROPININ Article Raised beds with their own hands, drainage and installation of a greenhouse - councils of the summer residentThe beds under the removable roof. The raised beds look beautiful and aesthetically pleasing. It is easier to care for plants growing in such boxes (which is very important for older people). Here it is easier to create a deep fertile layer, such as carrots, daikon, parsnip and other root crops. Another bonus is that the soil in such beds ripens faster in spring, which is favorable for early sowing. But in this case you need to take care of shelter for gentle shoots. That it will protect plants from returnable frosts. For those who can not open and close the beds every morning, the best choice is a dense non-woven material.Valeria Leontyeva-Pisarchuk Article Unusual flowerpots for flowers with your own hands (photo)A planter of birch bark with my own hands decorating my house I try to use natural materials. I love working with birch bark very much - products from it are always original and beautiful. Most recently, I made a small pots. From the slats 2x1 cm, 2x2 cm and 4X0,5 cm, I made a box-base with a side of 10, see. Inside secured plastic wrap. Outside the joints pasted twine. The frontal part was decorated with a butterfly, carved out of plywood 4 mm thick. The pot is ready. It can be installed as an artificial and live flowers or bouquets.Yuri Afanasyev Article Shelf-dryer for shoes do it yourself: PHOTO + DRAWINGDo-it-yourself universal dryer for shoes It is not recommended to dry leather shoes on a hot battery - the material will deteriorate and your favorite shoes will not last for a long time. I offer a time-tested accelerated method - drying with a blower. From a polypropylene pipe d 120 mm I made a U-shaped rack. At the same time, on one side, the hole in it should be open. I installed a PC cooler into it and connected the power supply unit to the 12 V. I bought a plastic adapter 24 for polypropylene pipes d 14 mm and drilled holes in the crossbar for them in two rows approximately opposite each other. I fixed the adapters in the holes with a thermogun. At their free ends I fixed sections of corrugated hose of the required diameter with a length of approximately 30-35 with plastic clamps. A dryer for a large family is ready. I place shoes and hoses inside the rack along the rack and turn on the cooler. Warm room air through the hoses enters the shoes, it is accelerated circulation - drying.Anatoly Matveychuk Article Comfortable kitchen with own hands - kitchen trivia and accessoriesDo-it-yourself kitchen hangers To keep order and not to clutter the space of lockers and drawers of a small kitchen set, I made simple suspension holders for large cutlery. I prepared the drawings and the sketch (see fig. 1, 2 on page 11) made two parts of the d 12 mm pipe - L-shaped and in the form of a bracket. In each workpiece drilled the required number of holes 5 mm for hooks. Last made of wire of the desired diameter. In order to fasten the holders under the cabinets, from the d 5 wire d mm bent the suspenders (fig. 1, 2, item 2) I cleaned all prepared parts and assembled the holders: welded hooks into the holes (fig. 1, 2, item 3), also fixed the hangers . Both products are primed and painted with white waterproof enamel. When the coating is dry, set the holders in place - L-shaped above the sink (photo 1), in the form of a bracket - on the cabinet next to the stove (photo 2) On hooks hung everything that should be at hand.Igor Lashuk Article DIY lamp - photo and DIAGRAMOn the landing often there are interruptions in lighting and this situation is familiar to many tenants of high-rise buildings. In the dark corridor to get the key into the keyhole is the whole problem. To solve it, applied a little trick. I bought a small flashlight with batteries and installed it in the door frame at the level of the lock. To do this, I drew an installation diagram (see fig. On page 14). The diameter and length of the flashlight in the riser door frame drilled hole d 10 mm and depth 45 mm. I tried to install the flashlight in the "socket" - it did not work, the power button interferes, which, when pressed, does not hide completely. I punched a slot under the button and the flashlight entered the hole. He took it back, measured the distance from the end with the lens to the button, and drilled a hole in the bar. Screw the switch on top of this hole (picked up from a broken toy) (see photo), set the flashlight again - the backlight is ready. Now, to get the key to the lock, simply press the button, the main thing is to change the batteries in time.Guest of the site "With Your Own Hands" Article Hanger in the style of "Provence" with their own hands of amazing beautyA hanger with the decor with your own hands. I had long wanted a neat and not bulky hanger in the hallway. Among the store options, I did not find anything suitable and asked my husband to think of something unusual. He readily agreed, and this is what happened with us. I bought hooks and forged decorative items at the hardware store. The husband cut out from the pine shield three figured details and joined them together with two metal strips with a section of 40x4 mm. Wooden parts painted in a nut-colored, and iron - in black. He fixed elements of the decor in the gaps by welding (it can be bolted), and fastened hooks to the wooden panels, two for each - a hanger is ready. To fasten it to the wall, the L-shaped anchor was last screwed in (see photo)Sergey Khomyakov Article Portable (mobile) swings and a horizontal bar with their own handsTurnip in five minutes with my own hands. I love to play sports and always try to keep fit. Regularly go to the gym there is no time, so he made a simple little bar at home. He took a piece of metal pipe length 120 cm and tied to it along the edges of the two tapes from the tightening straps. The resulting product is attached to the steps of the home staircase leading to the second floor - the horizontal bar is ready (see photo) I picked up the length of ribbons with a margin so that you can adjust the distance from the crossbar to the floor, this allows you to expand the complex of exercises. Such a horizontal bar, if necessary, can be removed and moved to the street, for example, securing it on a tree branch. I hope my idea will be useful to many fans of slim body and toned muscles. Be healthy!Vitaly Kadenko Article Candlestick made of wood by own handsCandlesticks in ecostyle do-it-yourself It’s easy to create such original things from natural materials. A little diligence - and your work will be rewarded with an exclusive! From a dry prepared branch I cut 7 saw cuts d 6-7 cm and about 3-4 cm thick. For the base I picked the cut c d 14-15 cm. I chose a candle groove in smaller blanks. He assembled the design with screws and wood glue, securing the parts in a spiral (photo 1). The finished product was covered with two layers of varnish with intermediate drying. Set the candles in the holes. For the second candlestick, cut branches of different lengths from 9 to 13, see. Thoroughly sanded them. As a base, I used a cut with a thickness of approximately 2 cm. I nailed it with small nails around the circumference of the workpiece. In the places of contact, the branches carefully glued them with carpenter's glue. The finished product is covered with matte varnish from a balloon. In the center put a glass with a candle (photo 2)Guest of the site "With Your Own Hands" Article Shadow on the site - what plants to plant and what to do with itFriends often ask to suggest plants that can be put into the room, and even the angle where sunlight rarely falls. These are! 1. Diffenbachia For her, diffused light is ideal. It is even advisable to keep it behind the curtain. The plant is especially decorative in the spring-summer period, when bright tender leaves appear in the center. 2. Calathea For the patterned leaves of this plant are dangerous sun rays. The best option for calathea is partial shade. 3. Chlorophytum crested Very unpretentious, that is why flower growers love it. The plant can do without the sun for a long time and not only will not be “offended”, but will continue to purify the air. 4. Dracaena marginata Distinguished by the original coloring of the leaves - they are green with a reddish-purple border around the edges. The plant is very unpretentious and at the same time loves the shadow."Do it yourself" Article We store vegetables without a cellar: 5 alternative ways- Most likely, winter garlic began to germinate in you, which is stored for a short time - until January. If you are sure that spring garlic heads sprout, then storage conditions are probably violated. The optimal temperature - + 15 ... + 20 hail. In addition, garlic can begin to germinate if the heads were kept for a while at a low temperature (frozen over). Enumerate the entire crop, separate the damaged and sprouted garlic. Keep the rest under the above conditions.Victor Agafiev, smt. Pesochin Article We store vegetables without a cellar: 5 alternative waysBegan to sprout garlic left in storage in the apartment. What to do?"Do it yourself" Article Feeding the garden in the snow - questions and answers- If the area is flat (spring, it does not erode the meltwater), then re-entering the spring is optional. In fact, calcium and magnesium carbonates (from dolomite flour) are slightly soluble and move slightly in the soil (they don’t get anywhere from your site). At the same time, such poor mobility in the soil causes the obligatory addition of dolomite flour and other calcareous ameliorants to the main tillage (digging ) to ensure a more uniform distribution of calcium and magnesium carbonates in the arable layer. Therefore, in spring, it is advisable to dig up the area or loosen it to the depth of 10-15.Eugene Article Feeding the garden in the snow - questions and answersIn the autumn, they did not have time to add dolomite flour to the site. Sprinkled in December on the first snow. Is there any sense of this treatment? Or will it have to be repeated in the spring?Anatoly SHMATKO Article Trellises and pergolas in the country house with their own hands (drawings)I propose the idea of a simple construction of fastening the stems of berry plants to the supporting wire or trellis. He made his “discovery” by accident: in the summer, he cut lining for supports under the branches of apple trees from an old hose. After work, there are a few rings about 5 mm wide (see photo 1). I looked at them, appreciated the size and strength, cut it on one side under the slope - and got ready fastenings for the “garter” of raspberry branches, grapes, roses to supports. It’s very convenient to work with these rings. First, he strung a couple of dozen on a wire, which he hung around his neck like a necklace, and already on a raspberry jam he removed the ring (pulling it with a little effort in the right direction) and, spreading the ends with his fingers, girded the raspberry stalk and wire (see photo 2)."Do it yourself" Article Foundation yourself - professional tips of tricksTheoretically, this possibility exists. Often we have to see such a picture, when trees grow on the roofs of houses, and dandelions break through asphalt. We think that trees should still be planted away from the house, and a lawn or a flower garden should be located nearby. Well, if there is such a need, then we must remember that the diameter of the root system of fruit trees is one and a half times the diameter of the crown. On ordinary vigorous rootstocks, the spread of roots in the horizontal direction can reach 5-6 m.Larisa Nikolaevna Article Foundation yourself - professional tips of tricksCan trees with their roots damage the reinforced concrete foundation? At what minimum distance from the house can they be planted?"Do it yourself" Article Pruning trees in the garden for beginners - a master classMost likely, you planted trees on the border of the site. If so, it is better to remove them from there. After all, the roots of the trees will spread even further, on the 5-6 m on the neighbor allotment. In industrial fruit growing, the half-plane shaping of the crown is known, in which the skeletal branches of the trees are directed along the row, and growing shoots are cut off in the direction of the rows between rows. Given this, you should cut both sides of the tree: from the side of the neighbor and from the opposite.Vladimir Alekseevich Article Pruning trees in the garden for beginners - a master classMy apple trees one side of the crown stretches to the plot of neighbors who occupy an irreconcilable position on this matter. Every year I have to cut the branches that violate the border. Is this one-sided pruning harmful to fruit trees?"Do it yourself" Article We store vegetables without a cellar: 5 alternative waysThe main cause of apple losses during storage is bacterial and fungal diseases. Moreover, the primary infection with microorganisms occurs in the garden during the growing season. Therefore, now there is a tendency to protect the fruits still in the garden, long before their removal. The fight is usually conducted with mushroom diseases, but not with bacterial diseases, and it is bacteria that cause the initial rotting of apples and “prepare the soil” for the successful development of fungi. But fungicidal treatments (for fungal diseases), if carried out, are stopped at the end of July. As a result, in August, which is usually dry and hot, an enormous amount of bacterial infection and fungal spores accumulate on apples. Bacteria of different species penetrate into the fruit through numerous pores of the skin. Part of the fruit begins to rot right on the tree, while the main part of the fruit shows signs of damage already during storage. During storage, bacteria begin to develop first, causing necrotic patches of brown color on fruits, on which fungi from spores, which are also on the skin surface, settle. To reduce the loss of apples during storage, it is necessary, first of all, to carry out all activities against bacterial and fungal infections during the growing season. 1-2 treatment with sulfur-containing drug (waiting time after copper-containing drugs - 20 days, after sulfur-containing - 1 day). Sulfur not only kills bacteria, but also clogs the pores in the skins of the fruit, preventing the penetration of bacteria into the inside. In private farms, it is also recommended to spray trees a day before picking fruits with biofungicide and bactericide based on bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AP-33 (50 ml per 10 l of water) or process already removed apples before putting them into storage with other biofungicide based on bacteria Bacillus Sub tilis strain 26 D (1 -1,5 l per 10 l water, 0,5 l working solution per 50 kg of fruit). The container can be disinfected with the preparation based on the iodine-surfactant complex (100 ml per 10 l of water).N. Trotsenko Novosibirsk Article We store vegetables without a cellar: 5 alternative waysDuring storage, the apples begin to deteriorate. Tell us in more detail how to prevent damage to fruits."Do it yourself" Article How to properly freeze vegetables, fruits and berries for storageRaspberries, strawberries, currants, gooseberries, as well as fruits of stone fruits, are usually processed by preparing jam, compote, and jam. However, in recent years, the experience of preserving freshly picked berries and fruits in frozen form in conventional freezers has been gained. It is better to place the fruit in small plastic bags with "locks" (sold in stalls, where bags for garbage and other purposes). At the same time, it is better to break the fruits of the plum, apricot in half and remove pits. Most berries and fruits do not lose their taste after defrosting just before consumption. Our long-term experience has shown that raspberries, strawberries, fruits of honeysuckle, plums, apricots are best defrosted in air by natural means. And the fruits of cherry, cherry, hawthorn, black currant berries, gooseberries, on the contrary, immediately boil. Frozen berries and fruits are suitable for processing in the same ways as fresh ones.I. Nikandrova Leningrad Region Article How to properly freeze vegetables, fruits and berries for storageThis year for the first time froze raspberries and gooseberries. Tell me how to properly defrost them?"Do it yourself" Article Milk for feeding and for diseases and pests - recipes and tipsSuch advice is indeed given by many gardeners who argue that milk protects garden, vegetable and ornamental crops from fungal diseases and even scares off insect pests. Unfortunately, science has not yet confirmed the effectiveness of the popular method. But she did not deny his favor. Therefore, act at your own peril and risk. If the method gives the effect directly on your plants - use it! But at the same time, you should know that dried milk can cause the development of black spot and other types of rot on the leaves of plants.Guest of the site "With Your Own Hands" Article Milk for feeding and for diseases and pests - recipes and tipsDoes spraying milk help in the prevention of fungal diseases? Nina Adamovna"Do it yourself" Article Shadow on the site - what plants to plant and what to do with itEveryone knows that our star is moving from east to west during the day, because of which sunny areas in the first half of the day often end up in the shade. Thus, the places completely lighted throughout the daylight, where there are trees and bushes, fences and buildings, simply cannot be. Therefore, the term “full illumination” suggests something different: it extends to areas exposed to the direct sun for at least 6 hours. In turn, the penumbra implies direct sunlight from 4 to 6 hours per day. If the earth "sees" the sun only less than 3 hours a day, then we can talk about full shadow. Of course, such data can be obtained only when measuring the duration of solar illumination. And it is best to do this twice a year, because the angle of incidence of sunlight varies with the season. Beginning in spring, the sun’s height increases until mid-summer, after which its decline begins. Accordingly, the "map" of the illumination area also changes. It is necessary to know this, since part of the crops are sown or planted in the spring, and some in the second half of summer. Measurements should be carried out at nine in the morning, noon and three in the afternoon. The data is plotted on three tracing paper with maps of the area where different areas are shaded with pencils of two colors: for example, light intensity is red, shadow is blue. Further combination of the maps makes it possible to create a single plan of illumination during the day. Places where only red is present are referred to as fully illuminated, spaces where there are two red and one blue areas are to penumbra, and finally, areas that are characterized only in blue are completely shaded. In accordance with this plan, as well as agrotechnics of specific cultures, it is necessary to build your gardening activity.Yegor Ivanovich Kuprin, Tver Article Shadow on the site - what plants to plant and what to do with itThe recommendations for growing plants often include the concepts of “full illumination”, “penumbra” and “shadow”. How to determine compliance with these characteristics of specific areas?Anna E. Article Crockery for seedlings - buckets and bottlesThe field of application of plastic bottles and bottlepacks is so extensive that it is fit to create the whole science of “bottle-keeping”. Recently, I started using 5-liter bottles (bottle-plugs) from drinking water for growing seedlings. And at once I highly appreciated this method. These transparent containers should be cut in half, at the same time only the lower part goes. Since watering shows up to which the lower limit water seeps, holes for draining excess fluid (it simply does not happen) do not need. In addition, a drainage layer is made of crushed eggshell and sand (2 cm) according to the bottom. Fertile soil 12-14 thick is poured over this. See. Before sowing it is necessary to shed the soil with boiling water, not allowing for over-wetting. After it is cooled with tweezers, the seeds are evenly laid out (up to 20 pcs.). Depending on the type of culture, they are covered with the necessary layer of soil or left in the light. The bottles must be covered with plastic wrap to create the greenhouse effect and put in a shaded place. After germination, the film is removed, and the container is exposed to a well-lit window. Watering is carried out as needed - the drying out of the soil is clearly visible through the transparent walls of the bogie. This is usually done every 4-5 days. It is useful to spray the seedlings every week with fertilizer “Baikal EM-1” in concentration for foliar dressings. As plants grow, especially tomatoes, it is advisable to pour soil into a container to form additional roots. It is also necessary to periodically turn the bottle clockwise so that all parts of the plants are lit evenly. Sampling with this method of growing seedlings is not required. Planting in a permanent place occurs as follows: it is necessary to squeeze the bottle, so that the soil clod “slipped” into a basin with a small amount of water. Here you can carefully remove the roots, if necessary, wash them and plant them in prepared holes. As practice has shown, all plants survive without exception. Such bottles with seedlings do not create problems with cleaning (nothing pours out of them), they can be easily and simply transported to the dacha.Catherine Article 7 do-it-yourself ideas for using sponge and tubules - a collection of life hackingI want to tell the readers how I made a cute stopper, fixing the door in the desired position. Take an old small soft toy of some animal, for example, a hare or a bear. Spread part of the seam in it. Remove the soft filler from the body and instead pour peas or beans. Spread the new heavy filler evenly over the body. Sew a hole carefully. This stopper works great! The toy should be attached to the bottom of the door leaf closer to the edge, on which there are no hinges. With its mass, it will hold the door in any position.Guest of the site "With Your Own Hands" Article Milk for feeding and for diseases and pests - recipes and tipsOften you can find a description of the way to get rid of slugs using beer, which attracts them no worse than drunkards with a hangover. Once in the vessel with the intoxicating drink, they can no longer get out of it. But it is not at all necessary to indulge in the harmful addictions of these pests. The same effect can be achieved by treating them with milk. Containers with steep walls, such as a glass jar, a bottle with a cut neck, or a plastic cup, should be dug into the ground so that their edges are above the surface at 1-2, see. The vessel should be filled with two-thirds of milk. During the night all the slugs crawling around will be crawling here They must be collected and destroyed. If you repeat all this 3 times, you will not meet with mollusks for a long time. Inga GermanovnaStanislav Stanislavovich Article How to uproot stumps left after a tree in the gardenThere are many ways to eliminate stumps from fruit trees. But most of them require great effort or time. And then the inevitable problem arises: what to plant in this place? Related plants should not be placed here, as they will be oppressed by the diseases and pests that remained due to “inheritance”. Meanwhile, these "remains" can be a source of food for other cultures. One of the most acceptable is gooseberry. It has a powerful root system that will pull nutrients from the stump and eventually destroy it. To do this, next to a stump of a tree, they dig a hole in the fall, and in early spring a seedling of a berry bush is placed in it. The stump itself may well serve as a support for the gooseberry, especially if you nail a peg with a height of 1,5 m to it. When caring for a sapling, you can not worry about feeding: the stump will provide it with food. Only watering is required. Such a neighborhood accelerates the decomposition of the wood of the former tree, and in 3-4 of the year, the stump is completely destroyed. And the gooseberry gives excellent yields of berries.Guest of the site "With Your Own Hands" Article We bend branches from fruit trees to speed up fruitingI want to share some experience in the care of the fruit garden. To begin with, at the end of the 1980-s, my son Yaroslav served in an armored unit in Germany, where, entering the bookstore, I saw a well-illustrated brochure on tree care. I looked through it and bought it. This little book came in very handy. True, I am so kind, I gave it to someone to read it later, but I never received it back. Well, okay, let them use it, because I remember the main idea from this brochure firmly, and it “works” smoothly at my dacha. The bottom line is this: in order to speed up the fruiting of a young garden, the Germans turn down young branches near the trees 20-30 cm) in the horizontal plane and fix them in this position. They say: we do not need strong wood, we need a bountiful harvest. I tried all this on different varieties of apple trees and confirm: the Germans are absolutely right. In this way, you can get a gain in time per year, or even two. In this case, all the young branches, thickening the crown, I ruthlessly remove shears. And now I’ll turn to the fight against such evil creatures as Khrushchi. Although here it is necessary to make an important clarification: adult individuals are completely harmless, but their larvae (here they are called chrobak) give heat. In the first decade of May, females of the Khrushchev lay dozens of eggs in tree trunks of trees, of which after two weeks the larvae hatch, with great pleasure then gnawing loquate roots, leaving only skeletal ones. And because of this, the trees are very sick, especially those that already bear fruit. What should be done? At the very beginning of May, I buy liquid ammonia in a pharmacy spilled in standard bottles, and I dilute each one in water - half in two buckets. Thoroughly stir and pour the resulting solution in pristvolny circles. The expense is this: if the tree is an adult, the whole is a bucket, the young is a half-bucket. Khrushchi can not stand the smell of ammonia and fly away to the neighboring garden, and the solution itself is also fertilizer. And if I find some hruschi and on the trees, then do not be lazy to collect all such aliens. I put them in buckets with a small amount of water and carry them to the chickens - oh, how much they love such a treat!murat Article Growing fighting cocks of different breeds - advice and recommendations for breedingSkills have fighting cocks chickens. But I need a clean Shamo breeds, Gona. How do I tie a swami. I live Karakalpakstan. Tel: 97 5002726. Telegraphs can be contacted, uatsavIgor Kosov, Voronezh Article 44 Board for STORING VEGETABLES AND FruitsSTORAGE OF GARLIC IN PARAFINE I tried many ways to store garlic, which I found on the Internet, but only one of them pleased me - the treatment of heads in paraffin. Although this method is the most time-consuming of all previously tested by me, but these efforts are subsequently replaced by an excellent tenderness of garlic. However, it is worth noting that any tricks of the summer resident will be in vain if he did not observe the correct agrotechnology of garlic cultivation during the season. Especially important is the correct cleaning technique, as well as preparation for the tab for storage. To do this, I stop watering the garlic for 15-20 days before harvesting so that the bulbs ripen well in dry soil, and if it rains during this period, I set up the arches and cover them with a film. Undermining heads gently and never upholster dirt from them on the ground or a shovel. Dirty garlic, first several hours of drying in the sun, and then, wearing cotton gloves, manually clean each earth from the clods. After that, lay the garlic under a canopy in a single layer and dry for 7-10 days. If it starts to rain, then I transfer the harvest to the attic of the country house, where it is always dry. After drying with sharp scissors, I prune the roots and stalks of garlic and take it home. I melt paraffin candles (the cheapest ones) purchased at a hardware store in a water bath. I swap the saucepan with a homogeneous paraffin mass onto the table, sit next to it and proceed to the procedure: I take each head for the stem, burn the remaining roots on the bottom with a lighter, immediately dip it into the melted paraffin and put it on the table covered with several layers of newspapers to dry. If paraffin begins to podstavat and excessively thickens, heat it on the stove. I do this with all the heads. The manipulation is a little tedious, but, in my opinion, it is worth it, because garlic is perfectly preserved until spring, it does not germinate and does not dry out as it used to. The film of paraffin does not let moisture inside the heads or out, so they remain juicy when the air is too dry in the room where they are stored, and if, on the contrary, moisture rises, the film protects from rotting or germination. The bulbs in paraffin wax dry instantly, I pour them into a cardboard box and store them in the corridor throughout the winter. Problems with cleaning this vegetable also does not arise - the paraffin film is very thin and is easily peeled off along with the husk.